Growing up, Kristin Wolfgang didn’t dream of being a teacher. But now she doesn’t dream of any other career.
Before heading into the classroom, Wolfgang worked at Borders Bookstore. She heard about a part-time Kindergarten teacher position and tried it out. Her fellow teachers asked her to lead small groups in reading.
“And I was hooked,” she said in an interview with Studies Weekly.
Wolfgang has been teaching for 19 years, and feels it’s not a job, but her calling. She is currently a 5th/6th grade teacher at The Volcano School of Arts and Sciences on the Big Island of Hawaii, but also taught in Austin, Texas.
“I love teaching. I love developing personal relationships with kids and showing them that they can do better. A colleague recently told me that she sees that I accept kids where they are and give them space and confidence to improve,” she said.
That brings her joy as an educator, as well as “creating curriculum, integrating technology and introducing kids to books!”
Of course, even after almost two decades of teaching, she still finds the career challenging. Similar to how other teachers feel, sometimes she stresses about organizing all that is asked of her.
“There are so many things we are asked to do besides just providing instruction and assessment of students. I’m always struggling to collect and report data as well as to revise and maintain my curriculum maps,” she said. “I know that one thing that causes teachers to leave the field is the difficulty of prioritizing our tasks.”
Despite this, she still loves what she does day in and out. One of the things that helps her run her classroom smoothly is Studies Weekly.
“I love Studies Weekly. The articles are engaging and rigorous, and my struggling readers can read along with the articles online. I am also able to integrate reading standards into my Social Studies lessons by using suggestions from the Teaching Supplements. Having the newspapers for the entire year helps me to stay on pace in presenting the social studies curriculum,” she said.
Wolfgang first encountered Studies Weekly after moving from Hawaii to Texas. She used various Texas grade levels there, and ordered the USA publications after moving back to Hawaii two years ago.
She enjoys Studies Weekly so much, in fact, that she also writes 5th and 6th grade curriculum for us. She started writing just one question at a time in 2015, and now she’s working on Teacher Supplements. She was also on the team that recently wrote the Studies Weekly K-2 leveled readers.
Wolfgang juggles a lot, but all of what she does is for the betterment of students. Texas and Hawaii may be vastly different in geography, she says, but for her, it’s all about the kids.
“Kids are kids no matter where you go. I love being with them and helping them learn,” she said.
To learn how you can use Studies Weekly Social Studies in your classroom visit studiesweekly.com.
Here at Studies Weekly, we know there is never quite enough time to do all you want as an educator. That’s why we try to make our ordering and our online platform as easy as possible.
We also know, with the many programs you use in your classroom, sometimes things can still get confusing. So we have a large Knowledge Base that can take you step-by-step through our online platform’s processes.
Students sitting at the desks of today’s classrooms are America’s next voters. They literally will be the deciders of our nation’s future.
To that end, they must understand the importance and power of voting. We educators, in partnership with their parents, are in an important position to help them appreciate this responsibility. Teaching the younger generation about their civic duty has less to do with politics and more to do with freedom of choice.
“For the nation’s democracy to function properly and for government to provide fair representation, all eligible Americans must have the opportunity to vote — and be encouraged to do so. Our collective self-rule is established and fostered through free, fair, accessible, and secure elections through which the voice of every eligible American is heard,” said Danielle Root and Liz Kennedy, of the Center for American Progress, in a July 2018 article.
Teaching the History of Voting Rights
Teaching students the history of voting rights within the United States can help them better understand the weight and sway they have in exercising this right.
Our nation’s democratic process may be an example to others, but it took many protests, movements, and the mobilization of large groups of disenfranchised residents to get where we are today. Education about the history of voting in America expands students’ minds, and gives them a greater appreciation for their own ability to share their voice.
According to research by KQED, when George Washington was elected as our first president in 1789, only 6 percent of the population could vote. This was due to land ownership laws and states’ differing voting regulations. Thus, only white male landowners could vote.
In 1856, land ownership was finally removed from voting requirements, opening the poll doors to all white men.
In 1868, the U.S. passed the 14th Amendment, granting citizenship to former slaves. Legislators followed up with the 15th Amendment in 1870, declaring that the right to vote could not be denied because of race. As citizens, male African Americans could legally vote.
Despite this legislation, some states enacted measures, such as literacy tests and voting taxes to subvert African Americans’ ability to register to vote. In some states, groups used violence and intimidation tactics to keep these same voters away from the polls.
These subversive efforts continued until 1965, when the Voting Rights Act was passed. It made it illegal for states to impose discriminatory restrictions on who could vote. This act came after decades of African American bloodshed while exercising their given right.
Women had been trying to acquire their own right to vote since 1848. It took them more than 70 years to successfully secure that vote in 1920. Well-known early leaders in this fight — Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony and Sojourner Truth — died before seeing women prevail.
Despite the 14th and 15th Amendments, many minority groups in America’s history had to forge their own difficult routes to voting.
Though they could be considered America’s first residents, Native Americans had no voting rights within the new republic. In 1876, the Supreme Court ruled that Native Americans were not citizens as defined by the 14th Amendment and had no voting rights.
Their path to polling places took many steps.
After the 1887 Dawes Act, Native Americans could obtain citizenship and the right to vote only by giving up their tribal affiliations. The Indian Naturalization Act passed three years later, and Native Americans could apply for citizenship through an application process similar to the process of immigrant naturalization.
Decades later, Native American veterans were granted citizenship after they served in the military during WWI. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 also granted citizenship to Native Americans born in the United States. But, again, many states passed laws and policies during this time to prohibit Native Americans from voting.
Finally in 1947, after Miguel Trujillo — a Native American and former Marine — successfully sued New Mexico denying his right to vote, barriers to voting started to crumble. It still took until the Voting Rights Act of 1965 for this right to be guaranteed.
Though they were an integral part of building America, especially in the West, Asian Americans had no citizenship rights.
The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 barred people of Chinese ancestry from becoming citizens. Then 40 years later, the Supreme Court ruled that people of Japanese heritage were ineligible to become naturalized citizens. A Congressional ruling in 1925 barred Filipino Americans from citizenship unless they served three years in the Navy.
Finally, in 1952, the McCarran-Walter Act granted all people of Asian ancestry the right to become citizens.
Puerto Rico and D.C.
Congress passed further voting rights laws in the 1970s and 1990s to guarantee better access to polls and voter registration. But today Puerto Rico and other U.S. territories still do not have full voting representation in the federal government. Stateside, those living in Washington D.C. have the right to vote for president, but do not have any representatives in Congress.
Importance of Voter Turnout
The right to vote in American elections has a long history of conflict, and students need to understand the value of making their voice heard. Voter turnout on election days is one of the most powerful ways citizens can do that. It also can be an effective path to enacting change that strengthens the rights of all citizens.
“It’s essential that all of us turn out to vote. Every vote is a building block in our democracy. The more people who vote, the stronger our system of government becomes. As a nation, we should do much better. We can do much better,” said Linda A. Klein of the American Bar Association in an October 2018 article.
As former President Franklin D. Roosevelt said, “Nobody will ever deprive the American people of the right to vote except the American people themselves and the only way they could do this is by not voting.”
We highlight women’s contributions to our nation’s history, often during Women’s History Month, and the right to vote is an important topic. During March, and throughout the year, voting rights should be a serious study for our students who will be our next generation of leaders.
Find more primary sources and articles about voting through your Studies Weekly online platform at studiesweekly.com/online.
Studies Weekly publications continue to win awards and recognition.
The Textbook & Academic Authors Association recently announced its 2019 Textbook Award Winners and two Studies Weekly publications took top spots.
TAA awarded “Oklahoma Studies Weekly – Our State, 6th ed.” as one of just two 2019 Textbook Excellence Award Winners for K-12. This publication, in magazine or newspaper format, uses Oklahoma’s history, geography, ecology, economy, and people to introduce social studies concepts in a vibrant, engaging, and age-appropriate way.
Chief Product Officer Kim Mogilevsky,
Editor-In-Chief Monica Sherwin, and Graphic Design Manager David Hall wrote the Oklahoma publication from the ground up with 100 percent new content, as part of the state’s adoption of Studies Weekly materials.
TAA also awarded “New Mexico Studies Weekly – Our State, 1st ed.” as one of just two 2019 Most Promising New Textbook Award Winners for K-12.
This publication, in magazine or newspaper format, provides a comprehensive overview of social studies topics — including complex issues like race and ethnicity, opportunity cost, and citizen rights and responsibilities — handled in a deft and engaging manner.
Mogilevsky, Sherwin and Graphic Designer Heather Larsson created the New Mexico publication also with completely original content.
The Textbook Excellence Award recognizes excellence in current textbooks and learning materials, and the Most Promising New Textbook Award recognizes excellence in 1st edition textbooks and learning materials, according to TAA information.
“Monica and I had a blast writing and developing these. We also enjoyed collaborating with our amazing designers, Dave and Heather, and so many other team members who helped to edit, review, post, print, box and ship the publications to our schools, teachers and students,” Mogilevsky said. “Producing quality publications is a labor of love!
These are some of the topics considered “controversial” in society, on social media, and in the classroom.
But why? In today’s society — more than 150 years since the end of America’s Civil War, almost 100 years since women gained voting rights in America, and 55 years since the Civil Rights Act — why are discussions about rights and equality still flashpoints?
Though our society made these important strides forward in decades past, strongly built foundations and beliefs still rumble beneath those issues. And sadly, there are too many people still unwilling to conduct an open dialogue about these uncomfortable truths, even today.
“It’s a conversation no one ever wants to have,” explained Loki Mulholland, Studies Weekly video manager, founding member of the Studies Weekly Diversity Board, Emmy award-winning filmmaker, and speaker on race relations in America, in a February 2018 presentation at Boise State University.
But he advocates having those conversations, because these issues still affect our students and people all over the world.
Globally, racial and gender equality are still under attack, explained Tendayi Achiume, special rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance at the United Nations, in two separate reports to the U.N. in March 2018 and July 2018.
“From crowds of youths marching to neo‑Nazi chants in Charlottesville, Warsaw and Berlin, to the racist and xenophobic attitudes of politicians in the highest levels of office worldwide … the assault on the human dignity of millions around the world has reached alarming proportions,” she said last March.
That is why we must still talk about equality and rights. Yes, it is sometimes scary, but we — as educators of our nation’s students — need to thoughtfully and purposefully wade into these murky and muddy issues.
“We don’t give our students enough credit. They know what is going on and it’s our job to connect the dots of what is happening today to the past, and how they fit into that picture. We should be empowering our students to make decisions and draw conclusions,” Mulholland said. “If we don’t talk about it and work towards improving inequality, then nothing is going to change. The students play a role in addressing the inequalities they see around them.”
Discussing Inequality in the Classroom
Despite the current shouting matches between current political leaders, discussions on equality and rights do not need to be divisive. And the classroom is one of the most perfect places to have these discussions.
“Young people need to understand equality and know their rights, to understand both how they should be treated, and how they should treat others. Teaching these topics creates a safe place for students to explore, discuss, challenge and form their own opinions and values,” the Equality and Human Rights Commission said in a May 2016 statement.
Beyond Inequality: Systemic Barriers
Even beyond discussions around equality, we should also teach our students about societal equity and the systemic barriers that women, people of color, and other minority groups continue to face. This idea is best defined through this image, originally created by Craig Froehle:The true history of America includes elements of systemic racism, systemic sexism and other systemic barriers to equality and equity for all. Our society still feels the effects of those today.
Mulholland pointed out just one example of this in his Boise presentation last year. He explained that just one generation ago, African American people — many who are still alive today — received truly inadequate and inaccurate education as a result of segregation. Education — which most of us believe today is the key to opportunity — was not equal or equitable.
Equality of Opportunity
In education, we’ve advanced far since that era of history. Today, educators implement a variety of processes that reach the learner where they are, to give them the best possibly equality of outcome. But we still have more to do, as explained in Stanford University’s “Equality of Opportunity and Education” project.
The Stanford project utilized philosopher Peter Westen’s idea that “opportunity is a three-way relationship between a person, some obstacles, and a desired goal. However, a person only has an opportunity if she has a chance of achieving that goal. One cannot have an opportunity if one faces insurmountable obstacles that make it impossible to secure the goal.”
Further, “for opportunities to be equal within a group, each member of that group must face the same relevant obstacles, none insurmountable, with respect to achieving the same desirable goal.”
It’s Only Us
Just like the fence image above illustrates, ideally all Americans may all be equal under the law, but may not have a true equality of opportunity.
Unfortunately, many American residents face insurmountable obstacles because of their gender, race, religion, culture, geography, socio-economic status or other minority identification. Because of this, they cannot reach the same heights others can.
So, until our we strategically remove these barriers and biases, we must still discuss equality and rights, and listen to and believe others’ experiences.
We need to stop seeing these issues as revolving around “us and them” and simply revolving around “us.”
“You have to be willing to open yourself up, to get uncomfortable and go there,” Mulholland concluded.
The example there shows you how students can use the Studies Weekly Reading Label Challenge.
In this activity, your students: highlight facts, timelines, sequence, informational texts, main ideas and supporting details, and identify Tier 3 vocabulary words.
You can also see how to create mini ELA lessons that ask your students to identify pronouns and verbs.
Fully Using Studies Weekly
We design our print products to be very hands-on and fully consumable.
(And, no, we don’t mean your students will enjoy munching on them for lunch!)
When we say consumable, we mean cutting out our images for a 3D Graphic Organizer or an interactive notebook. Or highlighting and discussing facts versus opinions, the main idea, or point of view in our informational texts. Or using our Primary Source Analysis Tool to observe, reflect and question the source right there on the paper.
On every weekly publication, we include learning activities your students can do right on the publication — vocabulary crosswords, writing prompts, inquiry strategies and ‘Think and Reviews’.
But that’s not all.
Professional Development on Demand
Our Professional Development on Demand page highlights even more ways to use and consume your Studies Weekly publications. You can explore those at studiesweekly.com/online/pdod.
Plus, we share ideas with our teachers here at our blog. Here’s some examples:
Reginald Wright took an indirect route to teaching — but it was one that led him to a career he loves.
“Every day is a new day,” Wright said in a recent interview with Studies Weekly.
Wright works as an instructional coach for 6th through 8th graders at Aldine Middle School in Houston, Texas.
“Even if they don’t learn all the causes of the Civil War, at least they saw an African American man who is youngish and educated and loves his job, and loves them,” he added, explaining that often this example is not what his students experience at home.
“I am what they can be.”
Wright has been an educator for nine years now, but it wasn’t his first job out of college.
As a senior in high school, he dreamed of being a teacher. He was a member of the Texas Association of Future Educators and enjoyed tutoring at the nearby elementary. But as he headed into college and majored in political science, he got nervous about teaching as a career.
Instead, he graduated and went to work in the local attorney general’s office. It was depressing work, he says, and after a time he moved on and became an insurance adjuster. In that field he enjoyed the freedom of being his own boss. But again, he didn’t feel fulfilled. He got to the point where he dreaded going to work.
“There wasn’t any joy in it. It wasn’t fun. At the end of the day, it was just a job. And I wanted to be more than just successful, I wanted to be significant,” he said.
He recalled his high school days with TAFE, remembering the fun and fulfillment he felt then. So, he pursued a teaching license.
“When I decided to give teaching a try, it was the best decision I’ve made in my life. I love fostering a love for social studies and helping my students fall in love with it like I did,” Wright said.
He says he loves what he does every day.
But as any teacher knows, there are many challenges. Wright’s biggest struggle and passion is to get his students to see the potential they have. He can see it, but they cannot.
“A large portion of our students have not been inspired to dream, to imagine they can do great things in the future,” Wright said.
At the start of the school year, some of the students he serves do not read on the middle school grade level, which makes it difficult for them to understand the middle school social studies curriculum. To get them to this deeper level of learning, Wright and his fellow teachers heavily utilize scaffolding techniques.
“Before you can teach them how to analyze a political cartoon, you have to tell them what ‘analyze’ even means,” he explained.
To help his students understand these deeper concepts, at a reading level they can comprehend, he uses elementary-level Studies Weekly Social Studies publications. The students learn, analyze and process the historical information while also gaining valuable reading, literacy and vocabulary skills. Wright has been using Studies Weekly for about five years, and loves that it is aligned to Texas’ state standards.
“When I first saw Studies Weekly, I thought, ‘This is awesome.’ It’s not a huge textbook, so it’s not intimidating at all. My students can read it and highlight it, circle it and write on it. Then they can fold it, put it in their backpack, and take it home with them. It’s just the best product ever,” he added.
Aldine Middle School’s ESL students also use the Spanish versions so they can understand the concepts as they learn English.
“Online, they are able to read it in Spanish, and then as they go along, we can graduate them from Spanish to English,” he said.
Wright is a passionate educator, an awesome example of the many teachers out there making a significant difference for America’s children.
To learn how you can use Studies Weekly Social Studies in your classroom visit studiesweekly.com.
How do you teach today’s culturally and socio-economically diverse students when often their history and literature curricula are predominantly Eurocentric?
That is a question we’ve been grappling with at Studies Weekly. In the past, some of our own publications included this unconscious bias. Recognizing that, we’ve been working diligently to completely revamp and reframe them.
This pivot is reflected in our Guiding Principles, which state, “We will have a minimum of two points of view present about the main topic taught in each weekly unit.” Because we know our students represent a wide swath of skin tones, ancestry, experiences and languages, we try to include multiple perspectives in our publications.
We don’t claim to be leaders in this approach, though. Many educators have been calling for diversity in the classroom and multicultural education materials that speak to all learners.
As Samantha Washington explained in her September 2018 article in The Century Foundation, studies show that students in diverse public schools harbor less racial prejudice and more self-confidence. She advocated that “equitable education reform must be invested in diversifying not only classrooms, but lesson plans, too.”
“That students with vastly different backgrounds are still being taught that only one history is worth knowing reveals what has always been a deeper question in American education: whose history is essential, and what are we teaching students when we tell them that theirs is not? In the fight for racial equity in the classroom, we must stress the importance of students learning from a curriculum which reinforces that their own histories, and, by extension, their own identities, matter,” she concluded.
But how can educators value the histories of all their students?
“As our country and schools become more ethically and culturally diverse, elementary teachers must have tools to help them plan for broadening the perspectives of the children they teach,” said professors Joyce H. Burstein and Lisa Hutton in Social Studies and the Young Learner in 2005.
Recognizing that some textbooks don’t provide multiple perspectives, they shared a fabulous teaching strategy for elementary educators: a Multiple Perspectives Planning Guide for tackling historical events that have multiple viewpoints. Of course, most of history has at least two sides to it — if not more — so this guide works well for any social studies classroom.
The guide focuses on a historical event, and takes students through its context and the major players there. Students delve into both primary and secondary sources from the event, looking for different viewpoints and perspectives. Burstein and Hutton also suggest using historical fiction trade books as sources, especially at the elementary level, because many are written by authors who hail from unique perspectives not always included in textbooks.
This learning strategy validates different cultural experiences, allows children the chance to identify with histories that truly reflect their own and others’ heritage, while also teaching them important critical thinking and analysis skills, and an ability to recognize complex situations.
In explaining the guide, Burstein and Hutton gave the example of children playing and resolving disputes in school yard. When problems happen at recess, “Children naturally want to tell their side of a story …. Students are burning to report their version of what happened.”
“Teachers need to capitalize on this natural inclination to have ‘their story told’ when teaching history,” they continued. “Historians are like a person who suddenly comes upon the scene of the playground dispute. The historian hunts for different accounts, artifacts, evidence and viewpoints of time periods in history.”
Looking at the bigger picture, today’s textbooks and lesson materials need to include these varied accounts and viewpoints. They cannot include token remarks highlighting important contributions from women, minorities and other cultures. Instead, these perspectives must be fully integrated into the curriculum, as Paul C. Gorski explains at EdChange.org.
Discovering new perspectives, new voices and new sources is one of the most fascinating things about studying history.
For many of us who attended school in the 70s, 80s and early 90s, we learned history from a very Euro-centric white male perspective. With current societal trends that push for authenticity across the whole of society, and technology that enables easy access to millions of primary sources, we now are able to re-examine history from fresh perspectives, diverse voices and multiple sources.
Because our nation’s schools are becoming more racially diverse than ever, this focus on historical diversity is vital to our nation’s students. It gives learners — regardless of ancestry, race, gender and sexual orientation — connections to viewpoints previously silenced.
Instead of viewing just one or two strands running along the walls of history, we now have a beautiful tapestry of interwoven threads that intersect and converge to create a more comprehensive canvas of individuals in our collective past.
Here at Studies Weekly, we want students to question, analyze and learn from a variety of experiences. As our Guiding Principles state, we “strive for diversity and equity in terms of race, people with disabilities, age groups, sexual and gender identities when significant to the context, family structures, religious and political views, and socio-economic status” — both in the representation of historical figures, and within our company.
“One of the challenges we have is our publications are for a very diverse readership — they are different in every which way you can think of. And sometimes you don’t know what you don’t know. That is why I thought it was beneficial to add another layer of support for our students,” said Kim Mogilevsky, chief product officer.
Our board members bring many non-white points of view to the table, including:
English Language Learners
Additionally, the board includes those with differing levels of education and roles, from classroom teachers to district leaders, and university professors to government workers.
“No one person can possibly fully comprehend the lens through which other people see the world,” explained Loki Mulholland, founding member of the Diversity Board, Emmy award-winning filmmaker, Studies Weekly video manager and speaker on race relations in America. “Each person on the board comes with vast academic and life experience and an astute understanding of the issues related to that experience.”
This group has been helping us with the monumental task of reviewing and updating older content. They also review all new and updated products.
“We’re trying to give students the facts of history, and allow them to form their own assessments on how society is evolving. The more points of view and eyes on the language that is used to educate, the better,” said John McCurdy, CEO.
The Diversity Board ensures we are speaking to students from a more broader view. And they are all focused on the same thing we are — the best content for students.
“What I like about them is they are all passionate about what they do. We’re all united in our mission to make a better product for students,” Mogilevsky said. “Our readership sees themselves reflected in our publications.”
“We want our students to understand the world they live in, one that is becoming smaller and even more interconnected,” he said. “We want a curriculum that matches these students.”
Not only does this approach create content that truly reflects the varied lives and perspectives of the students who read them, but it is statistically better for all involved.
According to a 2017 study by the McKinsey Global Institute, gender-diverse companies are more likely to perform 21% better financially than non-gender-diverse companies. Even better, the study found that ethnically-diverse companies are more likely to financially perform 33% better.
Our desire is that our Diversity Board and our company focus on diversity in history will translate into greater educational success and performance for our students.
To learn more about our Social Studies, Science and Civil Rights publications, visit our online store.
Most successful entrepreneurs say they overcame many mistakes, challenges and setbacks to get where they are.
“I’m convinced that about half of what separates successful entrepreneurs from the non-successful ones is pure perseverance,” the late Steve Jobs, co-founder of Apple, is quoted as saying.
Students — from elementary to secondary — can and should learn this grit and determination.
That is the “power of yet” Carol S. Dweck described in her November 2014 TedTalk. Dweck, a professor of psychology at Stanford University, is known for her work identifying the growth and fixed mindsets.
Without the power of yet, students basically are graded on their ability to show their skill or knowledge level. Regardless of pass or fail, they move on to a new topic. The power of yet allows students to progress, to see where they made mistakes, and learn how to correct them.
“Much of the entrepreneurial life is about trial and error and mistakes are a natural byproduct of that. But more than this, mistakes are an opportunity for growth. Extract all of the value from them that you can,” he said.
If more students understood that mistakes have value and can lead to growth, and were allowed the space and time to experiment with and experience this, the next generation would be better prepared for adulthood.
As an example: in most careers, workers do not receive grades associated with their work, because employees must see a task through completion — not just to a C+ effort. The most successful companies expect their workers to perform well. When employees fumble, managers expect them to bounce back, fix and learn what made a project fail or a product bomb.
This mentality, if better implemented in the classroom, could help students form a growth mindset — one that shows them failure is truly a part of learning.
“[I]f you get a failing grade, you think, I’m nothing, I’m nowhere. But if you get the grade ‘Not Yet’, you understand that you’re on a learning curve. It gives you a path into the future,” Dweck said.
Dweck, as part of the Mindset Kit — a free resource for teachers to help them develop the growth mindset in themselves and their students — recently dared learners to stop running from difficulties and failures, but to embrace them.
“If it was easy, well, then you probably already knew how to do it,” she said in a Mindset Kit video. “We should have kids asking for harder work, wanting the challenging problem. I want challenge to become the new comfort zone, not easy.”
Education circles are still debating how to effectively implement growth mindset training within the classroom. But the power of yet — the power of encouraging and celebrating persistence, of reveling in grit and overcoming obstacles — is still an important lesson we need to teach our children.